Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus), which is native to the Mediterranean region, has been grown in Turkey since ancient times. It is a perennial thistle of the Asteraceae plant family it grows to a height of about 2 m and produces a large, violet-green flower head.
Cynarae folium is rich in caffeoylquinic acids (such as chlorogenic acid and cynarin) and flavonoids. Caffeoylquinic acids play a major role in bile formation, bowel function and hepatoprotective activities while the flavonoids of the plant inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and LDL oxidation. In addition; cynarin, chlorogenic acid and luteolin show antioxidant activities.
Artichoke extract preparations are used for the detoxification of the body, gastrointestinal well-being and digestive disorders such as dyspepsia with a sensation of fullness, bloating and flatulence. Bioactive compounds found in artichoke leaves have diuretic, choleretic and detoxifying activities.